In addition, the project proposal and project technical and meeting reports are available under project documents.

Journal Articles

Refereed Journals


Urban watershed management in Africa in times of climate change: the importance of equitable public engagement” by Patricia E. Perkins, Mary Galvin, Elias Manjate, Simphiwe Nojiyeza, Elizabeth Lorimer, Stephen Otieno, Nilza Matavel, and Romanus Opiyo, being rewritten for journal submission.


Water rights, commons and advocacy narratives’ by Patrick Bond, South African Journal of Human Rights, June 2013.

Payment for ecosystem services versus ecological reparations : the ‘Green Economy’, litigation and a redistributive eco-debt grant’ by Patrick Bond with Khadija Sharife, South African Journal of Human Rights, June 2013.

Climate Crisis, Carbon Market Failure and Market Booster Failure: A Reply to Robin Hahnel’s “Desperately Seeking Left Unity on International Climate Policy”’ by Patrick Bond, Capitalism Nature Socialism, 24, 1, March 2013, pp. 54-­61.

Women and Water Management in Times of Climate Change: participatory and inclusive processes” co-authored by Patricia Figueiredo and Patricia E. Perkins, Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University. In the Journal of Cleaner Production special issue on “Women, Water, Waste, Wisdom and Wealth,” vol. 60 (December 2013), pp. 188-194. (May 16, 2011; accepted February 18, 2012.)


Market Failure at Durban’s Climate Summit’, by Patrick Bond, South African Geographical Journal, December 2012, pp.89-­102.

Climate Activism Quandaries: Eco-­Socialist Responses to Durban’s COP17’ by Patrick Bond with Kim Min-­Jung, Marxism 21, 9, 2, June 2012, pp.257-­284.

Durban’s Conference of Polluters, Market Failure and Critic Failure’ by Patrick Bond, ephemera, 12, 1-­2, March 2012, pp.42-­69.

Emissions Trading, New Enclosures and Eco-­Social Contestations’ by Patrick Bond, Antipode, 44, 3, March 2012, pp.684-­701.

‘COP17 and Labour’ by Patrick Bond, South African Labour Bulletin, March 2012, pp.33-37.


Women’s organizations and the struggle for water and sanitation services in Chatsworth and Inanda, Durban: The Westcliff Flats Residents Association and the Didiyela Women’s Group” by Shauna Mottiar, Orlean Naidoo and Dudu Khumalo (Centre for Civil Society, UKZN), Agenda vol. 25, iss. 2, special issue on the Politics of Water, 2011, pp. 122-­130.

Participating in urban myths about women’s rural water struggles” by Mary Galvin. Agenda vol. 25, iss. 2, special issue on the Politics of Water, 2011, pp. 87-­100.

Capitalism Nature Socialism: Special Issue on the Durban Climate Summit, 4, December 2011, edited by Patrick Bond.

Carbon Capital’s Trial, the Kyoto Protocol’s Demise, and Openings for Climate Justice’ by Patrick Bond, Capitalism Nature Socialism, 22, 4, December 2011, pp. 3-­17.

Prefigurative Political Ecology and Socio-Environmental Injustice in Durban’ by Patrick Bond with Ashwin Desai, Capitalism Nature Socialism, 22, 4, December 2011, pp.18-­42.

Croissance Économique Africaine, Destruction de l’Environnement et Contestation Sociale’ (‘African Economic Growth, Environmental Destruction and Social Contestation’) by Patrick Bond, Ecologie & politique, 2011, 2, 42, p. 33-­46.

From Copenhagen to Cancún to Durban: Deckchair Shifting on the Climate Titanic’ by Patrick Bond, Capitalism Nature Socialism, 22, 3, June 2011, pp.3-­26.


Anatomies of Environmental Knowledge and Resistance’ by Patrick Bond with Michael Dorsey, Journal of Australian Political Economy, 66, December 2010, pp.286-­316. Download PDF.

Water, Health, and the Commodification Debate‘ by Patrick Bond, Review of Radical Political Economics, 2010, 42, 4, December 2010.

Climate Justice Politics across Space and Scale’ by Patrick Bond, Human Geography, 3, 2, September 2010.

Maintaining Momentum after Copenhagen’s Collapse: Seal the Deal or “Seattle” the Deal?‘ by Patrick Bond, Capitalism Nature Socialism, 21, 1, March 2010, pp.14-27.

Climate Debt Owed to Africa: What to Demand and How to Collect?’ by Patrick Bond, African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 2, 1, 2010, pp. 83-113.

Book and Book Chapters

Water and Climate Change in Africa


Water and Climate Change in Africa: Challenges and Community Initiatives in Durban, Maputo and Nairobi. London/New York: Routledge/Earthscan. Edited by Patricia E. Perkins

In the coming decades, countries around the world will face increasingly severe challenges related to global climate change. While the details vary from country to country, the impacts will be especially grave for marginalized people, whose access to food, potable water, and safe shelter may be threatened due to fluctuations in rainfall and temperature, and to extreme weather events. Because weather extremes are the main way that climate change manifests itself, water governance is a crucial aspect of climate change resilience.

Following an overview of the ways climate change is affecting three cities in Africa, Water and Climate Change in Africa: Challenges and Community Initiatives in Durban, Maputo and Nairobi discusses the equity and climate justice implications, and then gives examples of ways in which a range of local community organizations are extending their current activities to address these challenges through innovative new programs and initiatives at the grassroots. This approach has implications for communities worldwide; it is a process of building on existing organizations’ aptitudes and strengths in the light of local knowledge of climate challenges, and creating partnerships to build equity-enhancing new methods of protecting people’s subsistence.

This book should be of interest to climate change scholars, activists and policy-makers, as well as development studies researchers and practitioners. See our book review.

Access this book online in YorkSpace, York University’s Institutional Repository.

Book Chapters


“Social vulnerability and climate justice: community-­?based strategies for political engagement,“ by Patricia E. Perkins. Submitted December 2, 2011 for publication in A Global Survey of Sustainable Development in Areas of Social Vulnerability, edited by Adenrele Awotona.

“Women, watershed governance, and climate change,” by Patricia E. Perkins, submitted April 2013, to be published in A Feminist Political Ecology of Water and Global Environmental Change, edited by Stephanie Beuchler and Anne-­Marie Hansen.


Climate justice partnership linking universities and community organizations in Toronto, Durban, Maputo, and Nairobi,” by Patricia E. Perkins with Ana Louise Tavares Leary. Published in Sustainable Development at Universities: New Horizons, edited by Walter Leal (Frankfurt: Peter Lang Scientific Publishers, 2012), pp. 207-­215.

UKZN professor Patrick Bond also published several books and book chapters on climate justice and water issues, drawing in part on project-­related research, contacts and results.

Film Trailer

Project Brochures

2011 Brochure

2013 Brochure


Feeling the Heat in Durban: People’s struggle and climate change by The South Durban Community Environmental Alliance.

Workshop and Conference Presentations

Presentations about the Project


  • Perkins, P.E. (2014). Community-based political engagement, redistribution, and climate justice. Paper presented at the American Association of Geographers conference, panel on  “Climate justice:  interrogating an emergent discourse,” April 8-12, Tampa, Florida.
  • Perkins, P.E. (2014). Social vulnerability and climate justice:  community-based strategies for political engagement. Presentation at the “Living with Climate Change” project workshop, York University, Toronto, March 21.


  • Perkins, P.E. (2013). “Gender justice and climate justice:  building women’s political agency in times of climate change,” paper presented at the Work in a Warming World conference, Toronto, November 29-December 1.
  • Perkins, P.E. (2013). “Community-based political engagement for climate justice in Africa,” paper presented at the African Studies Association conference, Baltimore, Maryland, November 21-24.
  • Perkins, P.E. (2013). “Green community development and commons governance,” paper presented at the United States Society for Ecological Economics (USSEE) conference, University of Vermont, Burlington, June 9-12.
  • Figueiredo, P. & Perkins, P.E. (2013). Women, Watershed Governance, and Climate Change. Paper presented as part of a session on the Feminist Political Ecology of Watersheds, organized by Stephanie Buechler and Anne-­?Marie Hanson of the University of Arizona for the American Association of Geographers annual meeting. Los Angeles, California, April 9-­13, 2013


  • Leary, A.L.T., and Perkins, P.E. (2012). Climate justice partnership linking universities and community organizations in Toronto, Durban, Maputo and Nairobi. Paper presented at the World Symposium on the Sustainable Development at Universities (WSSD-U 2012). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 5-6, 2012.This paper describes the Climate Change Adaptation in Africa Project, which worked to increase the participation of marginalized groups, especially women, in urban water governance.  Furthermore, it describes how students and faculty members from the University of Nairobi, Kenya; Eduardo Mondlane University in Maputo, Mozambique; and the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa worked with civil society organizations in the three cities and with York University researchers to show how organizing in local communities can help the vulnerable to deal with climate change.A later version of this paper was later published in Leal Filho, W. (2012). Sustainable Development at Universities: New Horizons. Umweltbildung, Umweltkommunikation und Nachhaltigkeit/Environmental Education, Communication and Sustainability. Volume 34. Peter Lang Frankfurt.
  • Perkins, P.E. (2012) Climate justice, redistribution, and ecological economics. Presented at the International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE) conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 16-­19, 2012.


  • Perkins, P.E. (2011). Social Vulnerability and Climate Justice: Community-based Strategies for Political Engagement. Paper presented at the international workshop on “Innovation, Diversity and Sustainable Development in Areas of Social Vulnerability,” an event of The Centre for Rebuilding Sustainable Communities after Disasters and Chair in Multiculturalism. University of Massachusetts, Boston, USA. November 17-18, 2011.This paper discusses climate justice in relation to the author’s work with NGOs and community groups in both the Global North (socially disadvantaged areas of Toronto, Ontario) and the Global South (Brazil, Mozambique, South Africa and Kenya) aimed at developing participatory community-based programs for environmental education and climate change awareness leading to increased political engagement by socially vulnerable people. Watersheds and water management, and gender equity, receive particular focus.
  • Perkins, P.E. (2011). Community-based responses to climate change in Durban, Maputo and Nairobi: outline of an activist research methodology. Harriet Tubman Institute Seminar, York University.This presentation outlines the climate-change-related challenges facing three African cities, as well as some of the steps community-based organizations are taking at the grassroots level to address these challenges.   Most relate to extreme weather events and water — both flooding and droughts — and have implications for housing, health, governance, infrastructure, urban planning, food security, and other traditional “development” concerns.  The people most affected — low-income women, in particular — are “experts” on these impacts but are generally the least likely to be able to participate effectively in governance and policy institutions.  Community organizing and development, grassroots environmental education, and bridge-building with local government institutions are starting-points for addressing this conundrum.  Communities can take advantage of academic support, both local and international, as they mobilize local assets and political power, and develop resilience in the face of climate change.   This presentation describes some of the steps involved in building such activist-academic alliances, and reports on an ongoing three-year International Development Research Centre-funded project with partners at York University and in Durban, Maputo and Nairobi.
  • Leary, A.L.T., and Perkins, P.E. (2011).“International synergies to address climate change: Participatory community organizing in Canada and Brazil”; presented by Ana Tavares Leary at the Global Studies Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 18-­20, 2011.

Presentations at Project Meetings


Community and Government Engagement,” presented by Priya Pillay, South Durban Community Environmental Alliance, at the project’s final meeting in Nairobi, November 2012

Eduardo Mondlane University’s presentation” by Elias Manjate and Prof. Eugenia Cossa, Eduardo Mondlane University, at the project’s final meeting in Nairobi, November 2012

Engaging with local communities in regard to climate change and water,” presented by Priya Pillay, South Durban Community Environmental Alliance, at the project’s final meeting in Nairobi, November 2012

Overall South Durban Community Environmental Alliance (SDCEA), Umphilo waManzi and Centre for Civil Society (CCS) Activities,” presented by Prof. Patrick Bond, University of KwaZulu-Natal, at the project’s final meeting in Nairobi, November 2012

Small Gestures, Big Changes,” presented by Nilza Matavel, Justiça Ambiental, at the project’s final meeting in Nairobi, November 2012

Water for Transformation of Communities in Relation to Climate Change, presented by Sadique Bilal and Stephen Kasoa, at the project’s final meeting in Nairobi, November 2012

What ‘praxis’ lessons do we learn from activists? From reformist to non-reformist reforms, presented by Prof. Patrick Bond, University of KwaZulu-Natal, at the project’s final meeting in Nairobi, November 2012


CCAA Project – Mozambique (MuGeDe)

Climate justice and water: first stage, background research

Climate Change Workshops in KwaZulu-Natal

Eduardo Mondlane University Environmental Education Program

Environment, Water and Sanitation Project

Impact of floods: The case of Polana Caniço Zone

Managing water in rainfed agriculture

Mapping of Vulnerabilities and Coping Mechanisms in Silanga Village of Kibera Slum

SDCEA Climate Slides

SDCEA School Workshops 2011 (photos)

Small Gestures, Big Changes

Water Governance and Adaptation to Climate Change in Informal Settlements: Case of Huruma, Nairobi

Water Governance in Kibera Informal Settlement Silanga Village


Actors Integration and Water Governance in Nairobi’s City: Challenges and Adaptation to Climate Change

A hot climate for civil society engagement with climate change and water in eThekwini

Climate change in South Durban, South Africa

Clube de Educação Ambiental da Faculdade de Educação (CEAFE)

Gênero e Mudanças Climáticas em Moçambique

Linking Water, Environmental Education and Climate Change Adaptation

Urban Climate Change

Student Papers, Reports and Blogs

Sistema de Abastecimento de Água e Saneamento do Meio: Uma Analise ComparativaWater provision and sanitation: a comparative analysis by Neima Adamo (in fulfillment of the requirements for the CCAA project student exchange trip)

Educação Ambiental no Ensino Secundário na Cidade de Maputo: Uma Análise Comparativa,” Environmental education in Maputo’s postsecondary level: a comparative analysis by Sérgio Brito (in fulfillment of the requirements for the CCAA project student exchange trip)

Some, for all, forever – A Case Study of Participation in Water Management in South Africa’s Umgeni River Catchment” by Elizabeth Lorimer (Master’s major paper, Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University).

Integrated Water Resources Management and the Manufactured Scarcity of Water in Africa” by Simphiwe Nojiyeza

Water Governance Challenges in Nairobi’s Huruma Informal Settlement” by Stephen Otieno (University of Nairobi). Plus blogs by Otieno:

Climate Change Adaptation in Africa: Nairobi Team Contributions to Knowledge on Climate Change Adaptation by Aaron Saad, PhD Candidate, York University

Climate Change and Water Governance in the Greater Toronto Area” by Alexander Todd. MA candidate, Department of Geography, York University. June, 2011

Responding to Water Insecurity in Durban, South Africa” by Alexander Todd (Master’s thesis, Department of Geography, York University).

Impacto das inundações sobre a vida das populações nas zonas suburbanas nas Cidades de Maputo e Durban: Um Estudo de Caso,” The impact of floods on the lives of suburban residents in Maputo and Durban: A Case Study by Ester Uamba (in fulfillment of the requirements for the CCAA project student exchange trip)

Report on the Student Exchange Programme in Durban, South Africa 22nd August – 4th September 2011 by Elizabeth Wamuchiru & Stephen Otieno

Elizabeth Wamuichiru, Master’s thesis, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Nairobi, 2012.

Simphiwe Nojiyeza, PhD dissertation, Centre for Civil Society, University of KwaZulu-Natal – to be submitted in 2013.

“A History of the Green Change Project” by Elizabeth Lorimer, York University.

“Social Dynamics of Climate Change Adaptation in East Africa” by Paaristha Oomadath, Durban, South Africa.

Climate Change and Water Workshop. Presenters: Sérgio Brito, Neima Adamo, and Ester Uamba. Date: August 7, 2012. Venue: Umlazi Secondary School, Durban, South Africa

“Climate, water and destructive development from Maputo to South Durban”. SpeakersNeima Adamo, Sergio Brito, Ester Uamba, Patrick Bond and Dimple Deonath
Date: Friday, 3 August 2012. Venue: CCS Seminar Room 602, 6th Floor, MTB Tower, Howard College, UKZN

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change COP17 Debrief Delegation Panel. Presenters: Alex Todd and Prof. Patricia E. Perkins. Date: Thursday, January12, 2012. Venue: Stedman Lecture Halls, York University, Canada

CCS Seminar: In Hot Water – Climate change and water adaptation in Nairobi and Durban. Presenters: Stephen Otieno, Elizabeth Wamuchiru, Alex Todd, and Beth Lorimer. Date: Friday, August 26, 2011. Venue: Howard College, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

Climate change and water issues in Umbumbulu, South Africa” by Beth Lorimer

C17 July Meeting: The Movement’s Progress” by Alex Todd

“Flushing out the realities of urine diversion toilets in South Africa’s eThekwini municipality” by Beth Lorimer